Cambridge University Press
0521826721 - Eight Centuries of Troubadours and Trouvères - The Changing Identity of Medieval Music - by John Haines


This book traces the changing interpretation of troubadour and trouvère music, a repertoire of songs which have successfully maintained public interest for eight centuries, from the medieval chansonniers to contemporary rap renditions. A study of their reception therefore serves to illustrate the development of the modern concept of ‘medieval music’. Important stages include sixteenth-century antiquarianism, the Enlightenment synthesis of scholarly and popular traditions, and the infusion of archaeology and philology in the nineteenth century, leading to more recent theories on medieval rhythm. More often than not, writers and performers have negotiated a compromise between historical research and a more imaginative approach to envisioning the music of the troubadours and trouvères. This book points not so much to a resurrection of medieval music in modern times as to a continuous tradition of interpreting these songs over eight centuries.

JOHN HAINES holds a Canada Research Chair at the University of Toronto, where he teaches at the Faculty of Music and the Centre for Medieval Studies. His primary areas of research are thirteenth-century monophony and its reception, and he has published related articles in Revue d’Histoire du Théâtre, Early Music History and other journals.


General editors: John Butt and Laurence Dreyfus

This series has as its centres of interest the history of performance and the history of instruments. It includes annotated translations of authentic historical texts on music and monographs on various aspects of historical performance and instrument history

Recent titles

John Butt
Bach Interpretation: Articulation Marks in the Sources of J. S. Bach

Nicholas Thistlethwaite
The Making of the Victorian Organ

Christopher Page (trans. and ed.)
Summa musice: A Thirteenth-Century Manual for Singers

Ardal Powell (trans. and ed.)
The Virtuoso Flute Player by Johann George Tromlitz

Beth Bullard (trans. and ed.)
Musica getutscht: A Treatise on Musical Instruments by Sebastian Virdung

David Rowland
A History of Pianoforte Pedalling

John Butt
Music Education and the Art of Performance in the German Baroque

Rebecca Harris Warrick and Carol Marsh
Musical Theatre at the Court of Louis ⅩⅣ
Le Mariage de la Grosse Cathos

Julianne C. Baird (trans. and ed.)
Introduction to the Art of Singing by Johann Friedrich Agricola

Valerie Walden
One Hundred Years of Violoncello
A History of Technique and Performance Practice, 1740–1840

Bernard Brauchli
The Clavichord

Suzanne J. Beicken (trans. and ed.)
Vocal Performance and Ornamentation by Johann Adam Hiller

Hugh Macdonald (trans. and ed.)
Berlioz’s Orchestration Treatise


General editors: John Butt and Laurence Dreyfus

This series continues the aim of Cambridge Musical Texts and Monographs to publish books centred on the history of musical instruments and the history of performance, but broadens the focus to include musical reception in relation to performance and as a reflection of period expectations and practices.

Published titles

John Butt
Playing with History: The Historical Approach to Musical Performance

James Garratt
Palestrina and the German Romantic Imagination: Interpreting Historicism in Nineteenth-Century Music

Daniel Leech-Wilkinson
The Modern Invention of Medieval Music: Scholarship, Ideology, Performance

Michael Musgrave and Bernard Sherman (eds.)
Performing Brahms: Early Evidence of Performance Style

Christopher Hogwood (ed.)
The Keyboard in Baroque Europe

John Haines
Eight Centuries of Troubadours and Trouvères: The Changing Identity of Medieval Music


The Changing Identity of Medieval Music

University of Toronto

The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge, CB2 2RU, UK
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011–4211, USA
477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia
Ruiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain
Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa

© John Haines 2004

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2004

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

Typeface Adobe Garamond 11/12.5 pt.   System LATEX 2e   [TB]

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 0 521 82672 1 hardback


List of figures page viii
List of tables x
Acknowledgements xi
Introduction 1
1. The first readers 7
2. The changing song 49
3. Enlightened readers 89
4. The science of translation 155
5. Recent readings 205
6. Conclusions 261
7. Epilogue 299
Bibliography 305
Manuscript sources 338
Index 342


1.1. Late eleventh-century Marian song in Old Occitan: ‘O Maria Deu maire’, from Paris, BnF, f. latin 1139, fol. 49r (courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris) page 17
1.2. Scribe writing on a parchment roll: opening miniature for Thibaut de Champagne’s ‘Pour froidure’ in chansonnier O, fol. 94r (courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris) 19
2.1. Modern copy of chansonnier O’s reading of Thibaut de Champagne’s ‘Ausi com l’unicorne sui’: BnF ffr 12610, page 1 (courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris) 66
2.2. Thibaut de Champagne’s ‘Ausi com l’unicorne sui’ from chansonnier O, fol. 1r (courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris) 68
2.3. Anonymous fifteenth-century pastourelle ‘L’autrier quant je chevauchois’ in BnF ffr 12744, fols. 21v–22r (courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris) 70
3.1. Transcription and edition of Gaucelm Faidit’s planh from troubadour chansonnier η in Charles Burney, A General History of Music (1782), vol. 2, 242–3 90
3.2. Thibaut de Champagne in his palace listening to a song as depicted in Jean Monet’s Anthologie française (1765), vol. 1 107
3.3. Table of plants in Michel Adanson, Familles des plantes (1763), 223 116
3.4. Table of trouvère songs in Jean-Benjamin de Laborde, Essai (1780), vol. 2, 309 117
3.5. Moniot de Paris’ ‘Lonc tens ai mon tens usé’, as transcribed from chansonnier N by Pierre Clairambault in chansonnier Ⅹ, fol. 136/ⅽⅹⅹⅸ 121
3.6. Engraved portrait of François-Augustin Paradis de Moncrif in Œuvres de Monsieur de Moncrif, vol. 1 129
4.1. Engraved portrait of Charles-Edmond-Henri de Coussemaker (courtesy of the Conservatoire Royal de Bruxelles) 171
4.2. Adam de la Halle writing his songs, as depicted in chansonnier A, fol. 133v (courtesy of the Médiathèque Municipale d’Arras) 172
5.1. Portrait of Pierre Aubry 215
5.2. Portrait of Friedrich Ludwig (courtesy of the Niedersächsische Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen) 217
5.3. Ludwig’s table of incipits for troubadour chansonnier R: Göttingen, Niedersächsische Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. Ms. Ludwig Ⅺ, 1, page 1 (courtesy of the Niedersächsische Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen) 225
5.4. Ludwig’s copy of Thibaut de Champagne’s ‘Por conforter’ from chansonnier O: Göttingen, Niedersächsische Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. Ms. Ludwig Ⅻ, page 4 (courtesy of the Niedersächsische Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen) 228
5.5. Portrait of Friedrich Gennrich (courtesy of the Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt-am-Main) 230
5.6. Gennrich’s sketch and final version of Bernart de Ventadorn’s ‘Non es meravelha’, incipit (courtesy of the Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt-am-Main) 231
5.7. Portrait of Jean and Louise Beck and Yvette Guilbert at the beach, around 1920 (courtesy of Thomas Dalzell) 241
6.1. Engraving of jousting knights from Lodovico Ariosto’s Orlando furioso (1556), 473 273
6.2. Massilia Sound System 289
7.1. Provins, Tour de César, lower level 301
7.2. Provins, Lycée Thibaut de Champagne, student refectory 302
7.3. Provins, Lycée Thibaut de Champagne, chapel next to kitchen 303
7.4. Provins, Lycée Thibaut de Champagne, north-east corner wall 303


1.1. Extant chansonniers with troubadour melodies page 21
1.2. Extant chansonniers with trouvère melodies 21
1.3. Trouvère melodies in miscellaneous sources 22
1.4. Gautier de Coinci manuscripts with music 22
1.5. Thirteenth-century works with musical interpolations 23
1.6. Lost medieval sources with music 24
1.7. Songs in measured notation 29
1.8. Troubadour and trouvère songs surviving in motets 31
3.1. Eighteenth-century copies of chansonniers (+ = with some music) 122
3.2. Moncrif’s imitations of Thibaut de Champagne’s songs 128
3.3. Sources of pseudo-medieval selections in Laborde’s ‘Choix de chansons’ in his Essai (1780), vol. 2 136
4.1. Coussemaker’s list of trouvères in the Montpellier Codex 176


Most of this book was written during my tenure at Shorter College in north-west Georgia (USA). Those who have undertaken such a project at an institution not primarily designed for research can appreciate the measure of my gratitude not only towards head librarian Kimmetha Herndon but especially to two inter-library loan specialists, Karen Simpkins and Julie Harwell. With unfailing cheer and persistence, Karen and Julie bore the weight of my many inter-library loan requests, often at the rate of several items a day. I would also like to thank Harold Newman, provost of the college, for a summer travel stipend in the summer of 2001. I certainly could not have finished this book in time without the help of Anna Davis, my research assistant at Shorter for three years, whose diligent work is scattered throughout the following pages. I would also like to thank the staff of the Robert Woodruff, Pitts Theology and Heilbrun Music and Media libraries at Emory University in Atlanta, who helped me during my frequent visits there.

   Amount and quality of research is often at the mercy of individuals as well as grant committees, and my own research profited from several beyond those already mentioned. I would like to first thank Michel Laisné of the Dieppe Médiathèque Municipale for sending me a newspaper clipping in April 1995 of which it could be fairly said that it launched this book into existence. That same year, Jacques Chailley kindly confirmed my suspicions surrounding Pierre Aubry’s death; my only regret is that I was unable to thank him in person before his own passing. I would also like to thank Robert Chapel of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Nathalie Cousin at the Sorbonne Music Library and Benoît Thériault of the Canadian Museum of Civilization for their archival assistance at early stages. I am also grateful to Marie-Louise Lippincott and Thomas Dalzell, daughter and grandson of Jean Beck, for sharing invaluable information with me. I spent the summer of 2000 working at the University of Göttingen, thanks to a Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst stipend. Göttingen’s outstanding collection of early modern books helped me lay the foundation for chapters 2 and 3, and I could not have begun or pursued detailed work on Friedrich Ludwig’s Nachlaß without the untiring help of librarian Bärbel Mund. An Institut Français de Washington Gilbert Chinard Fellowship allowed me to travel to Paris, Marseille and Toulouse in the summer of 2001. During that same summer, for their hospitality in Marseille I would like to thank the Messaoudène family and Caroline Bonheur (manager of Massilia Sound System), my parents John F. and Margaret Haines for assistance in Toulouse and Paris, and for assistance in Provins, Véronique Le Foll (of Provins’ Office de tourisme) and Gérard Lobot (principal of the Lycée Thibaut Champagne). Over the last five years, I have become especially indebted to the efficient staff at the Bibliothèque nationale de France. At the Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, I profited from Danielle Muzerelle’s expertise in many areas, including eighteenth-century watermarks. Finally, in the summer of 2002 a National Endowment for the Arts summer fellowship enabled me to complete the finishing touches on the book in Paris.

   Along the way, I have profited from interactions with several scholars, but especially Elizabeth Aubrey, Anna Maria Busse Berger, Patricia DeWitt, Mark Everist, Daniel Heartz, Andrew Hughes, Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, Gérard Le Vot, Robert Lug, Martin Staehelin, Mark Taylor, Edith Weber and William Weber. Of these, this book owes its greatest debt to Elizabeth Aubrey’s model work and her unstinting generosity and to Robert Lug’s hospitality and insight. It was a happy coincidence which led Mark Taylor to Berry College in the autumn of 1998, thus making possible many musico-literary discussions on the troubadours in the unlikely setting of north-west Georgia. Mark Everist and Robert Lug critiqued drafts of this book, for which I am deeply grateful. I would also like to thank David Ogborn and Jamie Younkin for their assistance with the musical examples and figures.

   My first and last acknowledgement is reserved for my dear friend and wife Dorothy Haines whom I thank for her companionship and continuing education in writing and the English language – essential ingredients to my completing this book.

University of Toronto
April 2003

© Cambridge University Press