Cambridge University Press
9780521876032 - Crafting Cooperation - Regional International Institutions in Comparative Perspective - Edited by Amitav Acharya and Alastair Iain Johnston

Crafting Cooperation

Regional institutions are an increasingly prominent feature of world politics. Their characteristics and performance vary widely: some are highly legalistic and bureaucratic, while others are informal and flexible. They also differ in terms of inclusiveness, decision-making rules, and commitment to the non-interference principle. This is the first book to offer a conceptual framework for comparing the design and effectiveness of regional international institutions, including the EU, NATO, ASEAN, the OAS, the AU and the Arab League. The case studies, by a group of leading scholars of regional institutions, offer a rigorous, historically informed analysis of the differences and similarities in institutions across Europe, Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The chapters provide a more theoretically and empirically diverse analysis of the design and efficacy of regional institutions than heretofore available.

AMITAV ACHARYA is Professor of Global Governance and Director of the Governance Research Centre at the University of Bristol.

ALASTAIR IAIN JOHNSTON is the Laine Professor of China in World Affairs in the Government Department at Harvard University.

Crafting Cooperation

Regional International Institutions in
Comparative Perspective

Edited by

Amitav Acharya
Alastair Iain Johnston

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
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© Cambridge University Press 2007

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First published 2007

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  List of tables page vii
  Notes on the contributors viii
  Acknowledgments xii
1   Comparing regional institutions: an introduction 1
2   Hanging together, institutional design, and cooperation in Southeast Asia: AFTA and the ARF 32
3   International cooperation in Latin America: the design of regional institutions by slow accretion 83
4   Crafting regional cooperation in Africa 129
5   Functional form, identity-driven cooperation: institutional designs and effects in post-Cold War NATO 145
6   Designed to fail or failure of design? The origins and legacy of the Arab League 180
7   Social mechanisms and regional cooperation: are Europe and the EU really all that different? 221
8   Conclusion: institutional features, cooperation effects, and the agenda for further research on comparative regionalism 244
  Bibliography 279
  Index 303


  3.1  Intermediary activity in south and middle American regions page 94
  3.2  Latin American regional and subregional institutional outcomes, 1990–2006 120
  5.1  Elements of institutional design in NATO 149
  5.2  Policy convergence in post-Cold War NATO 167
  8.1  Explanations for institutional design 248
  8.2  Features of institutional design 250

Notes on contributors

Amitav Acharya is Professor of Global Governance and Director of the Governance Research Centre at the University of Bristol. He was Professor of International Relations at the Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Among his publications are The Quest for Identity: International Relations of Southeast Asia (2000); Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia (2001, 2003, 2007) and, as co-editor, Reassessing Security Cooperation in East Asia (2007). His articles on Asian security, regionalism (Asian and comparative), multilateralism, international security, and international relations theory have appeared in International Organization, International Security, Journal of Peace Research, Pacific Affairs, Pacific Review, Third World Quarterly, Asian Survey, and Australian Journal of International Affairs, among others. A past president of the Asian Political and International Studies Association (APISA), he also serves on the editorial boards of European Journal of International Relations, Pacific Affairs, Pacific Review, and Chinese Journal of International Relations. His current work is about norms, power, and institutional change in Asian regionalism, and the prospects for non-Western international relations theory (with Barry Buzan).

Michael Barnett is the Harold Stassen Professor of International Affairs at the Humphrey Institute and Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota. Among his books are Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order (1998), and Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda (2002). His current work is on humanitarianism and world order.

Jeffrey T. Checkel is Professor of Political Science at the University of Oslo, and Research Associate, Centre for the Study of Civil War, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo. His research and teaching interests are international relations theory, European integration, politics in the former USSR and West Europe, human rights, and civil conflict. He is the author of Ideas and International Political Change: Soviet/Russian Behavior and the End of the Cold War (1997) and, most recently, editor of International Institutions and Socialization in Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2007). His current project explores the politics of European identity construction from a variety of disciplinary perspectives.

Jorge I. Domínguez is Antonio Madero Professor of Government, Vice Provost for International Affairs at Harvard University. He is the author or co-author of various books, among them Between Compliance and Conflict: East Asia, Latin America, and the “New” Pax Americana (2005); Mexico’s Pivotal Democratic Election: Candidates, Voters, and the Presidential Campaign of 2000 (2004); The Cuban Economy at the Start of the Twenty-First Century (2004); Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America (2003); The United States and Mexico: Between Partnership and Conflict (2001); The Future of Inter-American Relations (2000); Democratic Politics in Latin America and the Caribbean (1998); International Security and Democracy: Latin America and the Caribbean in the Post-Cold War Era (1998); Technopols: Freeing Politics and Markets in Latin America in the 1990s (1997); Democratic Transitions in Central America (1997); Insurrection or Loyalty: The Breakdown of the Spanish American Empire (1980); Cuba: Order and Revolution (1978), and many articles on domestic and international politics in Latin America and the Caribbean. A past President of the Latin American Studies Association and a past Board Chairman of the Latin American Scholarship Program of American Universities, he currently serves on the Editorial Boards of Political Science Quarterly, Latin American Research Review, Foreign Affairs en español, Cuban Studies, and Foro internacional. He was Series Editor for the Peabody Award-winning Public Broadcasting System television series, Crisis in Central America. His current research focuses on the international relations and domestic politics of Latin American countries. For more information:

Jeffrey Herbst is Provost and Executive Vice-President for Academic Affairs at Miami University. His primary research interests are in the politics of sub-Saharan Africa, the politics of political and economic reform, and the politics of boundaries. He is the author of States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control (2000) and several other books and articles. He has also taught at the University of Zimbabwe, the University of Ghana, Legon, the University of Cape Town, the University of the Western Cape, and Princeton University. He is a Research Associate of the South African Institute of International Affairs. In 2004–2005, he was a Fellow of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.

Alastair Iain Johnston is the Laine Professor of China in World Affairs in the Government Department at Harvard University. He is the author of Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History (1995) and Social States: China in International Institutions, 1980–2000 (2007), and co-editor of Engaging China: The Management of an Emerging Power (1999) and New Directions in the Study of China’s Foreign Policy (2006). He has published articles and book chapters on socialization theory, identity, and strategic culture mostly in reference to East Asian international relations and Chinese foreign policy. He has been a consultant for the Ford Foundation, the Union of Concerned Scientists, and the US government.

Yuen Foong Khong is Professor of International Relations and a Fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford University. He has taught at Harvard University and the Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, where he also serves as a Senior Research Adviser. His publications include Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965 (1992), Unilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: International Perspectives (co-edited with David Malone, 2003), and with Neil MacFarlane, Human Security and the United Nations: A Critical History (2006). He is currently working on a book project about the role of identity and power in American foreign policy.

Helen E. S. Nesadurai is Senior Lecturer in the School of Arts and Sciences, Monash University Malaysia. She has held previous appointments as Assistant Professor at the Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, and as Senior Analyst at the Institute of Strategic and International Studies, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her research interests center on the link between globalization and regionalism, with a special focus on how this relationship plays out in the broad Asia-Pacific region. She is currently researching the different ways in which elites attempt to build legitimacy for regional economic integration schemes through a case study of ASEAN, while a second project explores the interplay between different forms of economic knowledge in the design of institutions for global/regional governance. She is the author of Globalisation, Domestic Politics and Regionalism: The ASEAN Free Trade Area (2003) and the editor of Globalisation and Economic Security in East Asia: Governance and Institutions (2006). She is an external associate of the Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization, University of Warwick, UK and a member of the editorial board of the journal Global Governance.

Frank Schimmelfennig is Professor of European Politics at ETH Zurich, Switzerland and member of the Center for Comparative and International Studies. His main research interests are in the theory of international institutions and European integration and, more specifically, in the enlargement and democratization of European regional organizations. He has published, inter alia, in Comparative Political Studies, European Journal of International Relations, International Organization, Journal of Common Market Studies, and Journal of European Public Policy. He is the author of The EU, NATO and the Integration of Europe. Rules and Rhetoric (Cambridge University Press, 2003), which received the Best Book Award of the European Union Studies Association for 2003 and 2004, and The International Socialization of Eastern Europe. Regional Organizations, Political Conditionality and Democratic Change (2006, with Stefan Engert and Heiko Knobel).

Etel Solingen is the author of Nuclear Logics: Alternative Paths in East Asia and the Middle East (2007), Regional Orders at Century’s Dawn: Global and Domestic Influences on Grand Strategy (1998), Industrial Policy, Technology, and International Bargaining (1996) and editor of Scientists and the State (1994). Her articles on international relations theory, international political economy, comparative regionalism, institutional theory, democratization, and international security have appeared in International Organization, International Studies Quarterly, Comparative Politics, International Security, Global Governance, Journal of Peace Research, Journal of Theoretical Politics, Journal of Democracy, Asian Survey, and International Relations of Asia-Pacific, among others. She serves as Chair of the Steering Committee of the University of California’s system-wide Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation and is recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Research and Writing Award on Peace and International Cooperation, a Social Science Research Council–MacArthur Foundation Fellowship on Peace and Security in a Changing World, a Japan Foundation/SSRC Abe Fellowship, and a Center for Global Partnership/Japan Foundation fellowship, among others. Her research on regionalism has focused on East Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Euro-Mediterranean region.


This book is the outcome of collaboration between the Harvard University Asia Center, the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at Harvard, and the Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies (IDSS; now the Rajaratnam School of International Studies) at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. The Asia Center at Harvard offered a fellowship to Acharya during 2000–2001 to facilitate his collaboration with Johnston and generously offered seed funding for the project. The Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies hosted Johnston during 2003 and organized the second project workshop in Singapore during 2004. The Weatherhead Center for International Affairs hosted the first project workshop in Cambridge, Massachusetts in February 2002, and hosted Acharya during 2004 to work on the project. We are especially grateful to directors Ezra Vogel and Bill Kirby at the Asia Center, director Barry Desker at IDSS, and director and contributor Jorge Dominguez at the Weatherhead Center for their enthusiastic and consistent backing for the project. We also acknowledge a grant from the Lee Foundation, a private organization in Singapore, in support of the project. We thank Jeff Checkel, a contributor, in taking the initiative in organizing a panel discussion on the project at the American Political Science Association 2004 annual convention in Philadelphia. The editors would also like to thank Andrew Hurrell of Oxford, Greg Mills of the South African Institute of International Affairs, and Andrew Kydd of Harvard for their comments on the theme of the volume during the Singapore workshop, Tan Bann Seng, Deborah Lin, Karyn Wang, and especially Herbert Lin of IDSS for providing organizational and editorial assistance, and John Haslam and Carrie Cheek of the Cambridge University Press for advice and help in guiding the manuscript review process and its publication as an edited volume.

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