Cambridge University Press
0521783356 - The Evolution of Thought - Evolutionary Origins of Great Ape Intelligence - Edited by Anne E. Russon and David R. Begun
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The Evolution of Thought
Evolutionary Origins of Great Ape Intelligence



Research on the evolution of higher intelligence rarely combines data from fields as diverse as paleontology and psychology. In this volume we seek to do just that, synthesizing the approaches of hominoid cognition, psychology, language studies, ecology, evolution, paleoecology, and systematics towards an understanding of great ape intelligence. Leading scholars from all these fields have been asked to evaluate the manner in which each of their topics of research informs our understanding of the evolution of intelligence in great apes and humans. The ideas thus assembled represent the most comprehensive survey to date of the various causes and consequences of cognitive evolution in great apes. The Evolution of Thought will therefore be an essential reference for graduate students and researchers in evolutionary psychology, paleoanthropology, and primatology.

ANNE E. RUSSON is a professor of psychology at Glendon College of York University in Toronto. Since 1989 she has been studying intelligence and learning in ex-captive orangutans released to free forest life in central and eastern Indonesian Borneo.

DAVID R. BEGUN is a professor of anthropology at the University of Toronto. He is a leading researcher in Miocene hominoid paleobiology. His current research interests center on the biogeography of great ape and human origins and the relations between Miocene hominoids and the earliest humans.





The Evolution of Thought

Evolutionary Origins of Great Ape Intelligence



Edited by
Anne E. Russon
Department of Psychology, Glendon College, York University, Toronto

David R. Begun
Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto





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© Cambridge University Press 2004

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no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2004

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

Typeface Ehrhardt 9.5/12pt.   System LATEX 2e   [TB]

A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data
The evolution of thought : evolutionary origins of great ape intelligence / edited by Anne E. Russon and David R. Begun.
  p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0 521 78335 6
1. Apes – Evolution. 2. Apes – Psychology. 3. Animal intelligence. I. Russon, Anne E. II. Begun, David R.
QL737.P96E83 2004
155.7 – dc22 2003058668

ISBN 0 521 78335 6 hardback





Contents




List of contributors   vii
Preface   ix
 
  1 Evolutionary reconstructions of great ape intelligence   1
ANNE E. RUSSON
 
  2 Enhanced cognitive capacity as a contingent fact of hominid phylogeny   15
DAVID R. BEGUN
 
PART I COGNITION IN LIVING GREAT APES
 
Introduction   29
ANNE E. RUSSON
 
  3 The manual skills and cognition that lie behind hominid tool use   31
RICHARD W. BYRNE
 
  4 The cognitive complexity of social organization and socialization in wild baboons and chimpanzees: guided participation, socializing interactions, and event representation   45
SUE TAYLOR PARKER
 
  5 Gestural communication in the great apes   61
JOANNA BLAKE
 
  6 Great ape cognitive systems   76
ANNE E. RUSSON
 
PART II MODERN GREAT APE ADAPTATION
 
Introduction   101
ANNE E. RUSSON
 
  7 What’s in a brain? The question of a distinctive brain anatomy in great apes   105
CAROL E. MACLEOD
 
  8 Life histories and the evolution of large brain size in great apes   122
CAROLINE ROSS
 
  9 Evolution of complex feeding techniques in primates: is this the origin of great ape intelligence?   140
GEN YAMAKOSHI
 
10 The special demands of great ape locomotion and posture   172
KEVIN D. HUNT
 
11 Great ape social systems   190
CAREL P. VAN SCHAIK, SIGNE PREUSCHOFT, AND DAVID P. WATTS
 
12 Diet and foraging of the great apes: ecological constraints on their social organizations and implications for their divergence   210
JUICHI YAMAGIWA
 
PART III FOSSIL GREAT APE ADAPTATIONS
 
Introduction   235
DAVID R. BEGUN
 
13 Paleoenvironments and the evolution of adaptability in great apes   237
RICHARD POTTS
 
14 Cranial evidence of the evolution of intelligence in fossil apes   260
DAVID R. BEGUN AND LÁSZLÓ KORDOS
 
15 Life history and cognitive evolution in the apes   280
JAY KELLEY
 
16 Fossil hominoid diets, extractive foraging, and the origins of great ape intelligence   298
MICHELLE SINGLETON
 
17 Paleontology, terrestriality, and the intelligence of great apes   320
DANIEL L. GEBO
 
18 Body size and intelligence in hominoid evolution   335
CAROL V. WARD, MARK FLINN, AND DAVID R. BEGUN
 
PART IV INTEGRATION
 
19 Evolutionary origins of great ape intelligence: an integrated view   353
ANNE E. RUSSON AND DAVID R. BEGUN
 
Author index    369
Species index   373
Subject index   375




Contributors




DAVID R. BEGUN
Department of Anthropology
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada
begun@chass.utoronto.ca

JOANNA BLAKE
Department of Psychology
York University
4700 Keele St
North York, ON M3J 1P3, Canada

RICHARD W. BYRNE
School of Psychology
University St. Andrews
St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU, Scotland, UK
rwb@st-andrews.ac.uk

MARK FLINN
Department of Anthropology
107 Swallow Hall
University of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211, USA
FlinnM@missouri.edu

DANIEL L. GEBO
Department of Anthropology
Northern Illinois University
De Kalb, IL 60115-2854, USA
dgebo@niu.edu

KEVIN D. HUNT
Department of Anthropology, SB 130
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
kdhunt@ucs.indiana.edu

JAY KELLEY
Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry
University of Illinois at Chicago
801 South Paulina St.
Chicago, IL 60612-7213, USA
jkelley@uic.edu

LÁSZLÓ KORDOS
The Geological Institute of Hungary
H-1143 Budapest
Stefánia út 14, Hungary
kordos@mafi.hu

CAROL E. MACLEOD
Department of Anthropology
Langara College
Vancouver, BC V5Y 2Z6, Canada
caroleli@sfu.ca

SUE TAYLOR PARKER
Department of Anthropology
Sonoma State University
Rohnert Park, CA 94928, USA
parker@sonoma.edu

RICHARD POTTS
Director, Human Origins Program
Department of Anthropology
National Museum of Natural History
Smithsonian Institute
Washington, DC 20560-0112, USA
Potts.Rick@NMNH.SLEDU

SIGNE PREUSCHOFT
Living Links, Yerkes Primate Center
Emory University
954 North Gatewood Road
Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
Present address: Haydnstraße 25, 44147 Dortmund, Germany

CAROLINE ROSS
School of Life & Sport Sciences
University of Surrey
London, UK
c.ross@roehampton.ac.uk

ANNE E. RUSSON
Department of Psychology
Glendon College, York University
2275 Bayview Ave.
Toronto, ON M4N 3M6, Canada
arusson@gl.yorku.ca

MICHELLE SINGLETON
Department of Anatomy
Midwestern University
555 31st Street
Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
msingl@midwestern.edu

CAREL P. VAN SCHAIK
Biological Anthropology and Anatomy
Duke University
Box 90383 Durham, NC 27708-0383, USA
vschaik@acpub.duke.edu

CAROL V. WARD
Department of Anthropology
Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences
107 Swallow Hall
University of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211, USA
WardCV@missouri.edu

DAVID P. WATTS
Department of Anthropology
Yale University
P.O. Box 208277
New Haven, CT 06520-8277, USA

JUICHI YAMAGIWA
Laboratory of Human Evolution Studies
Faculty of Science, Kyoto University
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan
yamagiwa@jinrui.zool.kyoto-u.ac.jp

GEN YAMAKOSHI
Graduate School of Asian and African Studies
Kyoto University
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan
yamakosh@jinrui.zool.kyoto-u.ac.jp





Preface




This book arose from three realizations. First, there is an important need for good models of great ape cognitive evolution. Studies of comparative primate cognition over the last two decades increasingly show that all great apes share a grade of cognition distinct from that of other nonhuman primates. Their cognition appears to be intermediate in complexity between that of other nonhuman primates and humans, so it offers the best available model of the cognitive platform from which human cognition evolved. Understanding the position of the great apes is then essential to understanding cognitive evolution within the primate order and ultimately, in humans. Second, existing reconstructions of the evolutionary origins of great ape cognition are all in need of revision because of advances in research on great ape cognition itself, on modern great ape adaptation, and on fossil hominoids. Third, developing an accurate picture of the evolutionary origins of great ape intelligence requires bringing together expertise from a highly diverse range of fields beyond modern great ape cognition. Essential are current understandings of the brain, life histories, social and ecological challenges, and the interactions among them in both living and ancestral hominids.

   We therefore assembled a team of contributors with expertise spanning the topics currently recognized as relevant to cognitive evolution in the great ape lineage, with the aim of piecing together the most comprehensive picture possible today. We asked all our contributors to explore the implications of their realm of expertise for cognition and cognitive evolution. We are grateful to all of them for their willingness to embark on this enterprise and for sticking with the sometimes trying process of fitting this broad range of material together. The product is a compilation of our contributors’ views on adaptations relevant to cognition in the great ape lineage and our attempt to integrate their material into a coherent picture. Our sense is that a coherent picture does emerge. That contributors working from very different perspectives often voiced similar conclusions adds to our sense that this picture has considerable substance.

   We do not presume that our reconstruction will close the book on the evolutionary origins of great ape cognition. Although we covered most if not all of the major issues currently recognized as important in the evolution of great ape mentality, the breadth of the material involved means that our coverage is inevitably brief. Further, our contributors pointed to additional factors in need of consideration and there remain vast areas of importance that have been little researched or that are still crying for evidence. This picture will undoubtedly change as understanding improves. Our hope is that this collective work will contribute to filling the need for good models of the evolutionary origins of great ape intelligence and at the same time spur efforts to improve our picture where it proves lacking.





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